Inventory of the Malacological Epistolary of the Correspondents of Marianna Panciatichi Ximenes d'Aragona Paulucci

 

Inventaire épistolaire malacologique des correspondants de Marianna Panciatichi Ximenes d'Aragona Paulucci

 

  • Enrico Talenti, Gianna Innocenti, Laura Lusvardi & Simone Cianfanelli

 

Résumé Plan Texte Bibliographie Annexe Auteurs Citation PDF

 


Abstract / Résumé / Resumen


The correspondence archive of Marquise Marianna Paulucci Panciatichi Ximenes D’Aragona has been found in the Florence State Archive, consisting of nearly 1400 documents, mostly letters and postcards, of malacological relevance. Marianna Paulucci, a wealthy Tuscan noblewoman, was a passionate member of the Italian naturalist clubs of the second half of the nineteenth century. In Europe, she was one of the first eminent women recognized for her competence in the field of malacology. Her relations with contemporary malacologists, both Italian and European, were characterized by frequent and lively exchanges of opinions. The archive presented here is the result of these relationships and consists of a vast and varied patrimony of letters and postcards, received and mailed between 1861 and 1896. Most are from scholars but also institutions and sellers (companies, authorities, bookshops, and scientific publishing editors and shell suppliers), closely allied to her scientific activity.

In addition to the letters are invoices for literature and malacological items that she purchased. Also present and considered are lists of shells from the major dealers of natural objects and books in Europe. There are 167 correspondents, mainly Italian, but many other European ones, as well as some American and Australian. There are 1396 documents (letters and post-cards) plus a further 10 letters that could not be attributed to a correspondent, making a total of 1406 documents. In addition to the material found in the Florence State Archive, nine letters, donated in 1898 by Paulucci to the Florence Natural History Museum, together with her malacological library and collections, and two letters acquired successively (Maurizio Sosso donation) were studied. This contribution is intended to outline the entirety of the correspondence retrieved so far, creating a reference basis for future insights into individual correspondents.

Keywords: Marianna Paulucci Panciatichi Ximenes D’Aragona – epistolary – malacology – history of malacology – correspondence – historical social networks

La correspondance de la marquise Marianna Paulucci Panciatichi Ximenes D'Aragona a été retrouvée dans les Archives d'État de Florence, avec près de 1400 documents, surtout des lettres et des cartes postales à caractère malacologique. Marianna Paulucci, une riche noble toscane, était un membre passionné des clubs naturalistes italiens de la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle. En Europe, elle fut l'une des premières femmes éminentes pour ses compétences dans le domaine de la malacologie. Ses relations avec les malacologistes contemporains, italiens et européens, ont été caractérisées par des échanges d'opinions fréquents et animés. Le répertoire présenté ici est le résultat de ces relations et représente un patrimoine riche et varié de lettres et de cartes postales, reçues et expédiées entre 1861 et 1896. La plupart émanent de savants mais aussi par d'institutions et de vendeurs (entreprises, autorités, librairies, éditeurs scientifiques et fournisseurs de coquillages), étroitement liés à son activité scientifique.

Outre les lettres, sont incluses les factures d'achat d'ouvrages et d'articles de malacologie qu'elle a achetés, ainsi que les listes de coquillages et d'ouvrages commandés aux principaux marchands d'objets naturels d'Europe et librairies de l'époque. Ce sont 167 correspondants, principalement des Italiens, mais aussi de nombreux Européens, ainsi que quelques Américains et Australiens. Les documents (lettres et cartes postales) sont au nombre de 1396, auxquels il faut ajouter 10 lettres qui n'ont pas pu être attribuée à un correspondant, faisant un total de 1406 lettres. En plus du matériel trouvé dans les Archives d'État de Florence, neuf lettres, données en 1898 par Paulucci au Musée d'histoire naturelle de Florence, avec sa bibliothèque et ses collections malacologiques, et deux lettres acquises successivement (donation Maurizio Sosso) ont été prises en compte. Cette contribution vise à mettre en évidence la cohérence de la correspondance retrouvée jusqu'à présent, fournissant une base de référence pour les futures recherches sur les correspondants individuels.

Mots clés : Marianna Paulucci Panciatichi Ximenes D'Aragona – épistolaire – malacologie – histoire de la malacologie – correspondance – réseaux sociaux historiques

 

 


Plan


Introduction

Materials and methods

Discussion

The correspondents

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Annexe: table


Texte intégral


 

Introduction

In the collection of the Panciatichi family, preserved in the Florence State Archive, a rich correspondence of letters and documents related to malacology belonging to the Marquise Marianna Panciatichi Ximenes d'Aragona Paulucci (Florence, 3 February 1835 – Reggello, 7 December 1919) has been studied (Fig. 1). The letters were sent to the Marquise Paulucci from the major malacological scholars of the second half of the nineteenth century, while the other documents, sent by institutions and sellers (companies, libraries, scientific publishing editors and shell suppliers) were mostly related to the purchase of books and shells.

 

Fig. 1. Portrait of Marianna Panciatichi Ximenes d’Aragona Paulucci (1861), preserved in FB.

 

In this first contribution, we wish to outline the structure of this rich and varied correspondence which is composed of 1385 letters and postcards, to which must be added 10 letters that could not be attributed to a correspondent, and the correspondence (11 letters) preserved in the Museum of Natural History of Florence (Sistema Museale d’Ateneo, S.M.A.) of the Florence University, making a total of 1406 letters (Tab. 1). The study of the correspondence will improve the knowledge on Marianna Paulucci, now recognized among the most enlightened feminine scholars in natural sciences of the late nineteenth century (Manganelli et al. 2002; Manganelli & Cianfanelli 2002; Cianfanelli & Manganelli, 2002; Manganelli et al., 2009; Barbagli, 2019; Cianfanelli et al., 2021; Barbagli & Santacroce, 2022; Cianfanelli et al., 2023).

Regarding Italy, the second half of the nineteenth century can be considered as the most fruitful period, not only for malacology, but also for the natural sciences.

The unification of Italy created a new national culture, seeking to conform with the economic and cultural sectors of othern major European countries. In the field of natural sciences, several malacological societies were formed, to which Paulucci had been affiliated since their foundation, (Manganelli et al., 2002, 2009) In particular the Italian Malacological Society was created in 1874 in Pisa (Manganelli et al., 2017). The Italian Malacological Bulletin (1868–1875) first and then the Bulletin of the Italian Malacological Society (1875–1899) witnessed the transition from a purely collecting approach of the first half of the nineteenth century, to a more scientifically specialised focus. Marianna Paulucci was the first woman to subscribe to the Italian Geological and Palaeontological Society in 1882 (Mazzini et al., 2022; Talenti et al., 2024). Paulucci herself began to collect, buy and exchange fossil and recent marine and continental shells with the sole purpose of forming a rich collection (Thielens, 1876). After 1876, following the widespread nationalistic turmoil, she dedicated herself to producing an Italian faunal list on terrestrial and freshwater molluscs, which would have allowed Italy to place itself at the same level of other European countries (Paulucci, 1878; Manganelli et al., 2002). For this purpose, she created a first collection of 534 Italian species in 5346 boxes and presented it at the Exposition Universelle in Paris, publishing the first catalogue of Italian species (Paulucci, 1878). For this project, she established a network of relationships with the most important malacologists; even more extensive than the one she had already partly built to form her collection of marine and terrestrial fossil and exotic shells.

 

Materials and methods

The documents mainly concern those of the Panciatichi collection, 1367 letters; 28 postcards (filed in two folders: box 239 (Fig. 2) and 51) are preserved in the Florence State Archive. The documents were all photographed in order to study their contents. To these letters, a small batch of 11 letters preserved in the historical archive of the Natural History Museum of Florence (S.M.A.) was added. In addition to the correspondents’ letters, we also examined the payment receipts of the bookstores where Paulucci bought the malacological books and the correspondence of the societies with which she came into contact for reasons related to malacology. The sale catalogues of molluscs sent by the major dealers of the time, present in “box 51”, were excluded. The correspondents are listed in alphabetical order, followed by their concise data, following the criteria already adopted in Manganelli et al. (2017), postponing the in-depth analysis to future works on individual scholars. In some cases, the data for each correspondent were reported in a non-uniform and incomplete way, due to lack of information. The following data are given: given name and surname, date of birth and death, country of origin, portrait - when available. For the correspondents, we followed the criteria of Coan et al. (2021). The author is considered the one who has published at least one essay on molluscs; collector, who has collected or owned a collection of molluscs, indicating the specialization: fossil, recent, continental molluscs, marine molluscs. Also recorded are the main activity of the correspondent (military, university professor, publisher, etc.) and any other interests in natural sciences. Other specific data of the correspondence are: the number of letters and postcards present, their location in the individual boxes at the Florence State Archive or at the Natural History Museum of Florence University, the language/s in which the letters were written, the year or the time span in which the letters were written, the places from which the letters were written, and any other relevant information.

Fig. 2. Box 239 in the Panciatichi Fund at the Florence State Archive.

 

When present, references are given to wide-ranging papers in which the individual correspondents have been previously treated, in particular, in Manganelli et al. (2017), Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021), supplemented by other bibliographic sources when necessary. For the Societies, Libraries and Publishing Houses, brief historical notes of their activity are also reported.

Abbreviations:

APXA: Panciatichi Ximenes d’Aragona fund
ASFI: Archivio di Stato di Firenze
FB: Fausto Barbagli archive
IA: Internet Archive
MZUF: Museum of Natural History "La Specola" (S.M.A.) of the University of Florence
PH: Phaidra (Permanent Hosting, Archiving and Indexing of Digital Resources and Assets), Padova University
RP: Roberto Poggi archive
SMA: Sistema Museale di Ateneo Università di Firenze
SNM: Senckenberg Natural History Museum
WP : Wikipedia (public domain or CC BY-SA 4.0)

 

Discussion

The archive highlights how Marianna Paulucci an international character and reveals unpublished news and backgrounds, which characterized the history of malacological studies of a prosperous historical period, between the end of the Napoleonic wars and the First World War, which Dance (1966; 1986) defined "the golden age of malacology" for the European continent.

Paulucci's international outlook is evident from the many journeys he undertook during 1862 and 1882, both in Europe (Paris, London, Russia, France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Spain) and in various Italian regions. During these travels, she had the opportunity to meet many of the most important malacology scholars of the time, such as Tommaso Allery Di Maria, Marquis of Monterosato, Nicola Tiberi, Cesare Maria Tapparone Canefri, Antonio Villa, Wilhem Kobelt, Hippolyte Crosse, Paul Henri Fischer, Stefan Clessin, Jean-Baptiste Gassies, George Brettingham Sowerby III, and Gwyn Jeffreys (Fig. 3A-B).

The letters in this archive show the existing network of relationships with the major scientists and collectors who dealt with continental molluscs in Italy and Europe. In the first letters, she asked for confirmation on the diagnoses of the species she considered new (see the case of Crosse in Cianfanelli et al., 2024), then for an opinion on the diagnoses that she herself began to draw up, and in some letters, there are also drawings of shells. Subsequently with greater experience, her publications produced debates and criticisms, which in some cases were published (Pini, 1879; Paulucci, 1880).

The fame of her collection was so widespread throughout Europe that many people visited her, such as Tommaso Allery Di Maria Marquis of Monterosato, Wilhem Kobelt, Gwyn Jeffreys, Hippolyte Crosse and many others. A particular case was that of Armand Thielens, a Belgian naturalist who, on his participation in the "Congresso internazionale di Botanica e dell’Esposizione internazionale di Orticoltura”, was hosted by the Marquise Paulucci who showed him her collection. Thielens remained so impressed by her collection that he published a work describing it (Thielens, 1874). Tapparone Canefri published some of his works based on the "Museum Pauluccianum" as it appears in the titles of his papers (Tapparone Canefri, 1879, 1882). The collection, which had so fascinated Thielens in 1874, grew in the following years, by specializing in Palearctic terrestrial and freshwater malacofaunas. It was even more appreciated when Paulucci decided to present it in two international events: that of the Exposition Universelle in Paris (1878) and the Internationale Fischerei-Ausstellung in Berlin (1880), which were the subject of two of her publications (Paulucci, 1878, 1880).

It is interesting to note how the temporal progression of the letters with their correspondents reflects the path of the Marquise's interests. In the list of her correspondents, we first find the palaeontologists, then the specialists of Mediterranean and exotic marine molluscs and from a certain point onwards only scholars who dealt with the fauna of the continental European molluscs, such as Oskar Boettger, Stephan Clessin, Henri Droüet, Wilhem Kobelt, Guillaume Camille Alfred De Candie Saint Simon, Carl Agardh Westerlund. There are 167 correspondents and 47% are Italian authors (79), however the number of correspondents from other countries is also high: France 17% (29), Germany 18% (11), United Kingdom 14% (8), and Switzerland 5% (9). There are also numerous correspondents from other continents such as North Americans and Australians (Tab. 1; Fig. 4A). The documents (letters and post-cards) are 1406, taking into account the sellers of shells and bookshops, publishing houses, printing presses and companies. The predominance is that of the Italian correspondents with about 43% of the documents (593) followed by that of the French ones 26% (360), the British ones 12% (169) and the German ones 10% (140) (Tab. 1; Fig. 4B). The documents were written between 1861 to 1896, the peak numbers between 1873 and 1883 (Tab. 1; Fig. 5). This period coincided with the highest production of scientific papers by Paulucci, on the Italian continental malacofauna (Manganelli et al., 2002). From 1884 to 1896 the number of letters in the archive is much lower (5 letters).

 

Fig. 3. Correspondents table. A. Italians with more than 10 letters; B. Foreign correspondents with more than 10 letters. [Click on the image to enlarge it]
Fig. 4. Correspondents. A. Corresponding by nationality. B. Number of letters by nationality. [Click on the image to enlarge it]

 

Fig. 5. Correspondence time trend diagram.

 

This could depend on two kinds of reasons, the first being that the letters of that period could have been lost or not yet identified in the vast Panciatichi archive. The other, the most plausible, is that for family reasons Paulucci had to decrease her commitment towards her malacological studies. In fact, with the death of her husband Alessandro Anafesto Paulucci in 1887, and the simultaneous illness of her father, Marquis Ferdinando Panciatichi, who died in 1897, the Marquise had to take the reins of her conspicuous patrimony, a burdensome commitment that distanced her from the malacological passion. The paleontological collections were donated to the Museum in Florence in 1869 (this fact deduced by a letter from Igino Cocchi) and 1898 (Cioppi & Dominici, 2010). Again, in 1898, the year after her father's death, she donated her malacological collections to the Florentine Scientific Institutions (Barbagli & Borri, 2002).

The letters preserved in the MZUF (11) were probably donated together with other documents to the Florentine Royal Museum of Physics and Natural History together with her collection and her personal library in 1898.

The Italian correspondent with the highest number of letters sent is Raimondo Del Prete (54), followed among Hippolyte Crosse (44), with whom she had a very intense correspondance since 1862 (Cianfanelli et al., in press), Monterosato (42) and Tapparone Canefri (42) (Fig. 4). François Paul Savy is excluded because his correspondence is mostly related to the purchase of books (93). Among the correspondents there are also 5 women, with 29 letters: Julia Fitz-Gerald, Adele Verdey, Zoe Vimont, Julie Vieusseux, Marianne De Burgh, to the latter the Marquise dedicated a species, Clausilia (Papillifera) deburghiae Paulucci, 1878 (Fig. 3A-B).

If we exclude 3 letters dealing with ornithology, another naturalistic interest of Paulucci's, in the correspondence all the documents, letters, receipts, price lists have malacology as their sole object.

Research in the Archive is still ongoing and other letters of malacological content may be discovered. In particular, the letter received by Paulucci from Bourguignat mentioned in one of her papers has not yet been found (Paulucci, 1880, pagg. 170-171): “… mi decisi a scrivere direttamente al sig. Bourguignat a Saint- Germain presso Parigi e per esser sicura che egli avrebbe ricevuta la mia lettera, la spedii raccomandata … Mi rispose una lettera che serbo come campione di un genere di gentilezza di cui per mia buona ventura è il primo ed unico esemplare che abbia mai ricevuto” [“… I decided to directly write to Mr. Bourguignat to Saint-Germain near Paris and to be sure that he would receive my letter, I sent it by registered mail ... I was answered by a letter which I keep as a sample of a kind of kindness of which by my good fortune is the first and only copy I have never received"]. The letters of the correspondents present in the Florence State Archive and at the Museum of Natural History of the University of Florence confirm, with unpublished information, the importance of the role that Marianna Paulucci played in Europe in the second half of the nineteenth century for the evolution and the knowledge of the Italian, but also European, malacological fauna.

 

The correspondents

Adami, Giovanni Battista (1838-1887; Italy), (Pl. 1, Fig. A). Military, author, collector specialised of the Italian non-marine molluscs. 20 letters, in box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1 letter in MZUF, 1876-83, in Italian. Edolo, Desenzano, Chiari, Clusone, Bari, Verona. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Allery Monterosato Tommaso di Maria (1841-1927; Italy), (Pl. 1, Fig. B). Nobleman, author, specialised in Mediterranean marine molluscs. 42 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1870-83, in Italian. Palermo, Paris, Rome, Leghorn. Manganelli et al. (2017), Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Alt & Neumann (Germany), (Fig. 6). Publishing bookshop founded in 1868 by Johannes Alt and Justus Neumann at 18 Hirschgraben, in Frankfurt, active at least until 1903 in the field of publications initially in theology, then also in zoology, geology, and musicology (Lübbecke, 1948). 7 letters, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1877-81, in German and Italian. Frankfurt. The letters are sometimes signed by Alt, others by Neumann.

Fig. 6. Alt & Neumann receipt, preserved in ASFI-APXA.

 

Andreae, Achilles (1859-1905; Germany), (Pl. 1, Fig. C). University lecturer (in geology), author, collector, specialized in fossil shells. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1873, in French. Frankfurt. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Appelius, Federigo [Luigi] (1838-1876; Italy), (Pl. 1, Fig. D). Engineer, author, collector of Mediterranean and tropical shells and continental molluscs. 9 letters and 1 post-card, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1866-78, in Italian. Leghorn. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Aradas, Andrea (1810-1882; Italy), (Pl. 1, Fig. E). University lecturer (in geology), author, collector of recent and fossil marine molluscs. 3 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1877-80, in Italian. Catania. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Baudon, Auguste Adolphe (1821-1905; France), (Pl. 1, Fig. F). Physician, author, collector specialised in non-marine molluscs of French. 5 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1880-81, in French. Mouny. Breure & Audibert (2017), Breure & Moolenbeeck (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Benoit, Luigi (1804-1890; Italy), (Pl. 1, Fig. G). Customs clerk, politician, author, and collector of fossil and recent of continental and marine molluscs, ornithologist and entomologist. 6 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1876-1878, in Italian. Messina. Manganelli et al. (2017), Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Blanc, Hippolyte (?-1896?; Italy). State property officer, author with Westerlund (1879), collector of recent continental molluscs, botanist. 17 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1877-83, in Italian. Portici (Naples).

Blanchet, Jaques Samuel (1807-1875; Switzerland/Brazil), (Pl. 1, Fig. H). Merchant, mostly botanist, collector of recent continental molluscs. 17 letters, in box 239 and 1 letter, in box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1864-1867, in French. Genève, Naples, Rome, Lausanne. Breure & Tardy 2016, Coan & Kabat (2021).

Bocca Fratelli (Italy), (Fig. 7). The historical Bocca bookshop was opened in Turin in 1775 by the brothers Giovanni Antonio Sebastiano and Secondo Bocca, from Asti. The bookshop had five locations in the past: Paris, Florence, Rome, Turin and Milan. In Florence, its headquarters were in via Cerretani 8. 2 letters, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1875-82, in Italian. Florence.

Fig. 7. Fratelli Bocca receipt, preserved in ASFI-APXA.

 

Boccaccini, Corrado (1845-1902; Italy), (Pl. 1, Fig. I). Teacher at the “Liceo di Scienze Naturali di Cuneo”, botanist. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1879, in Italian. Cuneo. Manganelli et al. (2017).

Bock, Carl (1849-1932; Norwegian/United Kingdom), (Pl. 2, Fig. A). Government official, author collector, and dealer of tropical marine shells. 2 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1877, in English. London. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Boettger, Oskar (1844-1910; Germany), (Fig. 8; Pl. 2, Fig. B). Museum curator, herpetologist, author, specialised in recent continental molluscs. 14 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1877-81, in French. Frankfurt. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Fig. 8. Drawing by O. Boettger inserted in a letter dated 16 May 1879 sent to M. Paulucci, preserved in ASFI-APXA.

 

Bolgiano, Karl (1816-1897; Germany), (Figs. 9-10). University lecturer (in law), collector of tropical marine shells. 4 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1875, in French. Frankfurt. Notes: The letters contain two shell drawings. Zilch (1967), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Fig. 9. Drawing by K. Bolgiano inserted in a letter dated 7 August 1875 sent to M. Paulucci, preserved in ASFI-APXA. Fig. 10. Drawing by K. Bolgiano inserted in a letter dated 1 August 1875 sent to M. Paulucci, preserved in ASFI-APXA.

 

Bouè, Ami (1794-1881; Austria), (Pl. 2, Fig. C). Physician, geologist, author, collector of fossil marine molluscs. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1879, in French. Wöslau. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Briendel, Alfonso (?-? ; Italy). 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1879, in Italian. Nabresina.

Brogi, Sigismondo (1850-1899; Italy), (Pl. 2, Fig. D). Ornithologist, he opened a famous Taxidermic Cabinet in Siena. 2 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1881-1882, in Italian. Siena. Barbagli & Violani (2012).

Brot, Auguste Louis (1821-1896; Switzerland), (Pl. 2, Fig. E). Physician, author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 2 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1877-1888, in French. Geneve. Breure & Tardy (2016), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Brugnone, Giuseppe [Antonio] (1814-1884; Italy), (Pl. 2, Fig. F). Jesuit abbot, author, collector of fossil and recent marine and continental molluscs, botanist, entomologist and mineralogist. 2 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1876, in Italian. Palermo. Manganelli et al. (2017), Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Bryce, McMurdo Wright Jr. (1850-1885; United Kingdom), (Pl. 2, Fig. G). Bryce McMurdo Wright Sr. (1814-1875) and Jr. (1850-1885) were among the best-known 19th-century minerals, fossils, shells, rocks, gems, corals, dealers in England. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1878, in French. London. Note: the letter dated 1878 was surely written by Wright Jr.

Button, Fred (1856-1927; United States of America), (Pl. 2, Fig. H). Lawyer, politician, collector of recent marine and continental molluscs. 10 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1876-1882, in French. Berkeley, Lake Port, Oakland. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Cafici, Corrado (1856-1954; Italy), (Pl. 2, Fig. I). Nobleman, non-academic, archaeologist and malacologist, mayor of Vizzini (Catania), author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 16 letters, box 239, in ASFI-APXA, 1879-1882, in Italian. Vizzini. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021) erroneously mentioned him as Carlo, not Corrado.

Caifassi, Bartolomeo (1828-1906; Italy). State administration employee, cashier of the Italian Malacological Society. 5 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1877-1882, in Italian. Pisa. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Caroti, Cesare (?-?; Italy). Secretary of Paulucci, he was sent to explore Calabria, Pollino, Sardinia and other Italian regions, author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 16 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1878-1880, in Italian. Paris, Belleville, Cagliari, Rionero, Laconi, Potenza, Naples, Novoli. Manganelli et al. (2017). Coan e Kabat (2021) erroneously considered him French.

Carruccio, Antonio (1839-1923; Italy), (Pl. 3, Fig. A). Graduated in medicine, university lecturer (in Zoology), assigned to Cagliari, Florence and finally Rome, where he founded the “Museo di Zoologia”. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1882, in Italian. Modena. Manganelli et al. (2017), Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Castelli, Federigo (1824 -1897; Italy). Graduated in natural sciences, founder and vice-president of the Tuscan Society of Natural Sciences, politician, collector of recent and fossils marine and continental molluscs, and other naturalistic specimens. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1867, in Italian. Leghorn. Gremigni (2004), Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Cavanna, Guelfo (1850-1920; Italy), (Pl. 3, Fig. B). Entomologist, teacher (in natural sciences) and Associate Professor in Florence, collector of recent continental molluscs. 2 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1 letter, in MZUF, 1877-1881, in Italian. Florence. Manganelli et al. (2017).

Cerio, Ignazio (1841-1921; Italy), (Pl. 3, Fig. C). Physician, collector recent marine and continental molluscs, botanist, archaeologist and palaeontologist. 5 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1877-1878, in Italian. Capri. Cerio (1921), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Chevalisy ..? (?-?; Belgium). 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1868, in French. Tirlemont. Notes: Chevalisy wrote the letter on letterhead of a friend of Thielens, and in the name of the latter, who was ill and unable to do so.

Clessin, Stephan (1833-1911; Germany), (Fig. 11; Pl. 3, Fig. D). Initially military officer, he later worked for the Bavarian state railway, author, and collector of fossil and recent continental and marine molluscs. 19 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1878-1882, in French. Ochsenfurt. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Fig. 11. Drawing by S. Clessin inserted in a letter dated 17 June 1879 sent to M. Paulucci, preserved in ASFI-APXA.

 

Cleve, Per Theodor (1840-1905; Sweden), (Pl. 3, Fig. E). University teacher (in chemistry), oceanographer and palaeontologist, collector of fossil and recent continental and marine molluscs. 6 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1878-1882, in French. Uppsala, Paris. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Club Alpino Italiano, Lucca (Italy). 2 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1881, in Italian. Lucca. Notes: The request for some species of molluscs from the Apuan Alps, to be presented at the Milan exhibition of 1881, was made to Paulucci by Andrea Giorgio Juon, one of the founders of the Lucca section of the Alpine Club. The rich material made it possible to open in Lucca, in 1880, an exhibition of minerals, metals, and other issues, from the Lucca province. These specimens allowed the Marquise Paulucci to compete, in 1881, in the national exhibition of Milan and to be rewarded.

Cocchi, Igino (1827-1913; Italy), (Pl. 3, Fig. F). University teacher (in geology), geologist and palaeontologist, president in 1887 and in 1895 of the Italian Geology Association, collector of fossil molluscs. 6 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1863-1869, in Italian. Florence. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Collier, Edward (1846-1920; United Kingdom). Author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1881, in English. Manchester. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Coppi, Francesco (1843-1927; Italy), (Pl. 3, Fig. G). Graduated in natural sciences, palaeontologist, founding partner of the “Società dei naturalisti” in Modena, author, collector of fossil molluscs. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1883, in Italian. Modena. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Costa, Achille (1823-1898; Italy), (Pl. 3, Fig. H). University lecturer (in zoology) and director of the zoological museum of Naples, author, collector of recent continental and marine molluscs. 4 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1881-1882, in Italian. Florence, Naples. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Crosse, Hippolyte (1826-1898; France), (Pl. 3, Fig. I). Lawyer, director of the Journal of Conchology from 1861 until his death in 1898, author, collector of recent continental and marine molluscs. 40 letters, box 239 and 2 letters, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1862-1880, in French. Paris, Vernou. Breure & Audibert (2017), Breure & Fontaine (2019), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Damon, Robert (1814-1889; United Kingdom). Damon was initially an industrial manufacturer of gloves and shoes. Subsequently with his son, Robert Ferris Damon (1845-1929), established a dealership of natural history specimens in Weymouth, also a geologist, author, collector of fossil and recent marine and continental molluscs. 36 letters, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1865-73, in English. Weymouth. Dance (2006), Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

D’Ancona, Cesare (1832-1908; Italy), (Pl. 4, Fig. A). University lecturer (in geology), author, collector of fossil marine molluscs. 9 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1864-1881, in Italian. Florence. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

De Betta, Francesco Edoardo (1822-1896; Italy), (Pl. 4, Fig. B). Lawyer, landowner, politician, author, collector of recent continental molluscs, herpetologist. 10 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1878-1882, in Italian. Verona, Marcellise. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

De Burgh, Marianne [Tollemache] (1809-1880; United Kingdom). Daughter of the Admiral John Richard Delap Tollemache, non-academic collector of exotic marine molluscs. 29 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1861-1876, in French and English. Florence, Ecclestone, Homburg, Biarritz, Gironde, Couholt Park (Andover), Peckforton Castle Cheshire. (Wilkins, 2019).

Degréaux (o de Gréaux) Laurent (1822- ?; France). He was known as a "naturalist" (a naturalist-merchant) based to different cities: Marseille, Nice and Toulon. 3 letters box 51 in ASFI-APXA, in French, 1876. Marseille.

Desor, Pierre Jean Édouard (1811-1882; Switzerland), (Pl. 4, Fig. C). University lecturer (in geology) at Neuchâtel, author. 3 letters box 239 in ASFI-APXA, in French, 1864-1875. Neuchâtel, Paris. Coan & Kabat (2021).

De Stefani, Carlo (1851-1924; Italy), (Pl. 4, Fig. D). Lawyer, university lecturer (in geology), politician. 1 letter and 1 post-card, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1869-1882, in Italian. Florence. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

De Stefanis, Nicola (1799-1893; Italy). Military, collector specialised in recent Mediterranean marine molluscs. 9 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1868-1869, in Italian. Naples.

Del Prete, Raimondo (1850-1937; Italy), (Fig. 12, Pl. 4, Fig. E). Physician, author, collector of recent continental and marine molluscs. 49 letters and 5 post-cards, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 2 letters in MZUF, 1876-1882, in Italian. Viareggio. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Fig. 12. Drawing by R. Del Prete inserted in a letter dated 27 April 1879 sent to M. Paulucci, preserved in ASFI-APXA.

 

Deschamps, Emile (1857-1938; France). Traveller, collector of recent continental molluscs. 3 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1883, in French. Marseille. Breure & Audibert (2017).

Deshayes, Gerard Paul (1796-1875; France), (Pl. 4, Fig. F). University lecturer (in natural history) geologist, author, collector of fossil and recent continental and marine molluscs. 11 letters, box 239 and 1 letter, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1865-1871, in French. Paris. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Doderlein, Pietro (1810-1895; Italy), (Pl. 4, Fig. H). University lecturer (in geology), author, collector of fossil and recent marine molluscs. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1869, in Italian. Palermo. Manganelli et al. (2017), Massa et al. (2018), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Dohrn, Wolfgang Ludwig Heinrich (1838-1913; Poland), (Pl. 4, Fig. G). Author, collector of recent continental and marine molluscs. Paulucci dedicated him two Sardinian species Azeca dohrni and Helix dohrni. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1881, in French. Szczecin. Breure & Audibert (2017).

Drouët, Henri (1829-1900; France). State administration employee, author, collector of recent continental and marine molluscs, also botanist. 19 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 2 letters in MZUF, 1879-1883, in French. Dijon. Breure & Audibert (2017), Breure & Audibert (2019), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Dupuy, Dominique (1828-1885; France), (Pl. 4, Fig. I). Abbot, professor of natural history in Auch, author, collector of fossil and recent continental molluscs, botanist. 4 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1879-1880, in French. Auch (Gers). Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Étienne, Jean Auguste Celestin [Frère Ogérien] (1825-1869; France), (Pl. 5, Fig. A). Friar, naturalist and geologist. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1867, in French. Lons-le-Saunier. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Fagot, Paul (1842-1908; France), (Pl. 5, Fig. B). Lawyer, journalist, author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 16 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1878-1882, in French. Villefranche. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Féret & Fils (France). Jean-Baptiste Féret founded the publishing house La Librairie Féret in Bordeaux in 1812, which became Féret et fils in 1841. 1 letter, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1882, in French. Bordeaux.

Fischer, Paul Henri (1835-1893; France), (Figs. 13-14, Pl. 5, Fig. C). Physician, palaeontologist, author, collector of fossil and recent continental and marine molluscs. 23 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1 letter in MZUF, 1866-1882, in French. Paris, Cauterets (Hautes-Pyrénées). Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Fig. 13. Drawing by P. H. Fischer inserted in a letter dated 29 December 1877 sent to M. Paulucci, preserved in ASFI-APXA. Fig. 14. Drawing by P. H. Fischer inserted in a letter dated 4 October 1877 sent to M. Paulucci, preserved in ASFI-APXA.

 

Fitz-Gerald, Julia [Mrs.] (1830-1906; United Kingdom), (Pl. 5, Fig. D). Juliana M.M. Hele married Charles E. Fitz-Gerald, author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 16 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1878-1882, in English and French. Folkestone. Coan & Kabat (2021 [not Fitzgerald]).

Folin, Alexandre Guillaume Léopold de (1817-1896; France), (Pl. 5, Fig. E). Naval officer, author, collector of recent marine molluscs, oceanographer. 10 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1873-1895, in French. Bajonne, Port de Bajonne. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Friedländer & Sohn (Germany), (Fig. 15). Bookshop and publishing house in Berlin. Raphael Friedländer founded the Friedländer & Sohn Antiquarian Bookshop in Berlin in 1828. Since 1853, it was specialized in Natural History. In 1953, it celebrated its 125th anniversary. It still exists and is located at 26 Schlesische Strasse in the Kreuzberg district. 27 letters, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1875-1881, in Italian. Berlin.

Fig. 15. Friedländer & Sohn receipt, preserved in ASFI-APXA.

 

Gal [Frères] (?-?; France). Dealer of natural marine specimens, especially shells and other invertebrates. The contact with Paulucci was done through Verany. 3 letters, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1876, in French. Nice.

Gassies, Jean-Baptiste (1816-1883; France). Curator of the Musée préhistorique de Bordeaux, author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 25 letters and 1 paper, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1866-1882, in French. Bordeaux, Paris. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Gentile, Giacomo (1835-1906; Italy), (Pl. 5, Fig. F). Pharmacist, teacher (in natural history), author, collector of recent continental molluscs, botanist and chemist. 5 letters and 1 post-card box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1882, in Italian. Porto Maurizio (Imperia).

Gentiluomo, Camillo (1844-1928; Italy), (Pl. 5, Fig. G). Author, collector of recent continental and marine molluscs. 22 letters and 1 post-card in box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1868-1881, in Italian. Pisa. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Gloyne, Charles Papps (1840-1900; United Kingdom). Author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 3 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1876-1877, in French. Pembroke Dock (Wales), Pistoia. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Goldfuss, Otto Gottfried (1831-1905; Germany), (Pl. 5, Fig. H). Son of the German zoologist Prof. Georg August Goldfuss, author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 3 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1881-1883, in German. Halle (Saale). Coan & Kabat (2021).

Goupy & Jordan (France). Printing press located in Paris, Rue de Rennes 71, which printed in 1878 the Materiaux in 300 copies, on behalf of the F. Savy bookshop in Paris. 1 letter, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1878, in French. Paris.

Granata, Grillo Giuseppe (1857-?; Italy). Civil engineer, author, collector of recent marine molluscs. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1878, in Italian. Messina. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Gray, Arthur Fairfield (1855-1944; United States of America). American civil engineer, architect, collector of recent continental molluscs. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1883, in English. Davenport (U.S.A.). Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Gredler, Vincenz Maria (1823-1912; Austria), (Pl. 5, Fig. I). Franciscan monk, teacher (in natural history), author, collector of recent continental molluscs, entomologist, botanist, geologist. 2 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1879-1882, in Italian. Bolzano, Loznu. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Hanley, Sylvanus Charles Thorpe (1819-1899; United Kingdom). Author, collector of recent marine molluscs. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1877, in French. Florence. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Hidalgo, Joaquin Gonzalez y Rodriguez (1839-1923; Spain), (Pl. 6, Fig. A). Physician, university lecturer (in zoology and mineralogy), author, collector of recent marine molluscs. 2 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1880, in French. Madrid. Breure & Backhuys (2017a), Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Hinrichs (Leipzig, Germany). Leipzig bookshop, founded in 1791, known for its catalogues full of titles. 4 letters, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1875, in German. Leipzig.

Issel, Arturo (1842-1922; Italy), (Pl. 6, Fig. B). University lecturer (in geology) in Genoa, author, collector of marine and continental molluscs. 6 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1866-1882, in Italian. Genoa. Manganelli et al. (2017), Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Jago, George Giovanni (1818-1900; Italy). Dealer, collector of fossil and recent marine molluscs. 7 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1865-1868, in Italian. Leghorn. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Jeffreys, Gwyn (1809-1885; U. K.), (Pl. 6, Fig. C). Jeffreys worked as a solicitor in Swansea until 1856, when he was called to the bar in London. In 1866, Jeffreys retired as lawyer, and dedicated himself to malacology, especially on marine molluscs, participating in several field research campaigns. 4 letters and 1 post-card, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1866-1882, in English. London, Ware Priory (Hertford). Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Jousseaume, Félix-Pierre (1835-1921; France), (Pl. 6, Fig. D). Physician, author, collector of recent marine molluscs 3 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1880, in French, Paris. Van Gemert & Breure (2017), Breure (2020), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Juba de L'Hôtellerie P. (?-?; France). Academy officer, correspondent of the Ministry of Public Education, archaeologist and shell collector and dealer of North-African molluscs. 1 letter, box 239 and 1 letter box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1882, in French. Paris, Alexandria. Breure (2015), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Kobelt, Wilhem (1840-1916; Germany), (Pl. 6, Fig. E). Physician, author, collector of recent continental and marine molluscs. 9 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1877-1882, in Italian. Schwanheim (Frankfurt), Naples. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Landauer, M.J. (?-?; Germany). Dealers of shells and mineralogy, author, collector of fossil marine molluscs. 1 letter, box 239 and 14 letters, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1862-1878, in French. Frankfurt. Backhuys (2008), Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Lawley, Roberto (1818-1881; Italy), (Pl. 6, Fig. F). Landowner, geologist, ichthyologist, named a fossil shark after Paulucci. 5 letters, box 239 and 2 letters, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1865-1880, in Italian. Montecchio (Pisa). Manganelli et al. (2006), Manganelli et al. (2017).

Lessona, Mario (1855-1911; Italy), (Pl. 6, Fig. G). University assistant (in zoology) in Messina, teacher (in natural history) in Venice and Turin, author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 3 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1881-1882, in Italian. Turin. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Linnea Institut Naturhistorisches (Germany). 1 letter, box 239 and 1 letter, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1882, in French. Frankfurt. Signed by A. Vidal and Müller.

Locard, Étienne Alexandre Arnould (1841-1904; France), (Pl. 6, Fig. H). Civil engineer, author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 6 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1881-1882, in French. Lyon. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Loescher (Italia). Herman Loescher was born in Leipzig, in 1861. He took over an international bookshop in Turin that had belonged to Gustav Hahmann. In 1865 he opened a bookshop in Florence, and in 1870 another in Rome. He began his publishing business in 1867. 8 shipping receipts, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1867-1881, in Italian. Florence.

Major Forsyth, Immanuel Carlo (1843-1923; United Kingdom), (Pl. 6, Fig. I). Physician, author, collector of recent continental molluscs, also palaeontologist. 1 letter, box 239 (with the copy of Paulucci’s answer) in ASFI-APXA, 3 letters in MZUF, 1877-1891, in Italian. Porto Santo Stefano, Florence. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Maler, Teoberto (1842-1917; Germany/Mexico), (Pl. 7, Fig. A). Architect, archaeologist, photographer and soldier, collector of recent continental molluscs. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1878, in French. Paris. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Maltzan, Hermann Friedrich Joachim von (1843-1891; Germany), (Pl. 7, Fig. B). Nobleman, poet, collector of recent continental and marine molluscs, founder of the Natural History Museum in Maltzan (Meklenburg). 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1882, in French. Frankfurt. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Manzella, Alberto (?-?; Italy). Painter and engraver of the book “Iconografia della avifauna italica ovvero descrizioni e tavole illustranti le specie di uccelli che trovansi in Italia di Enrico Hillyer Giglioli (1879-1906)”. 1 letter, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1880, in Italian. Prato.

Marinoni, Camillo (1845-1882; Italy), (Pl. 7, Fig. C). Teacher (in natural history) in Caserta and Pavia, author, collector of fossils marine molluscs. 3 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1866, in Italian. Milan, Pavia. Manganelli et al. (2017).

Marinoni, Luigi (?-?; Italy). Brother of Camillo Marinoni. 2 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1866, in Italian. Milan, Florence.

Martorell y Pena, Frances (1822-1878; Spain), (Pl. 7, Fig. D). Trader, naturalist, archaeologist and numismatist, author, collector of fossil and recent continental and marine molluscs. 2 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1869-1870, in French. Barcelona. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Mascarini, Alessandro (1847-1898; Italy), (Pl. 7, Fig. E). Teacher (in natural sciences) in Ascoli Piceno, author, collector of recent continental molluscs, botanist, director of the Natural History Museum ("Museo Orsini") in Ascoli Piceno, Italy. 7 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1877-1880, in Italian. Ascoli Piceno. Manganelli et al. (2017).

Meli, Romolo (1852-1921; Italy), (Pl. 7, Fig. F). University lecturer (in geology) in Rome and professor at engineer schools, author, collector of fossils marine molluscs. 4 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1880-1881, in Italian. Rome. Manganelli et al. (2017).

Meneghini, Giuseppe (1811-1889; Italy), (Pl. 7, Fig. G). University lecturer (in geology) in Pisa, politician, author, collector of fossil marine molluscs. 2 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1880-1882, in Italian. Pisa. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Michelotti, Giovanni (1812-1898; Italy), (Pl. 7, Fig. H). Lawyer, employed at the Ministry of Agriculture, author, collector of fossil and recent marine molluscs, palaeontologist. 14 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1866-1871, in Italian. Turin, Rome, Orbassano. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Molteni, Luigi (?-?; Italy). Chief inspector of the railways in Foligno in the 1870s, collector of recent continental molluscs. 4 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1877, in Italian. Foligno, Rome. Manganelli et al. (2017).

Monjo, Monji [Pere] (1847-1931; Spain), (Pl. 7, Fig. I). Painter, teacher, curator of the Museu Municipal de Maò, today Museu di Mahon in Mallorca, collector of recent continental and marine molluscs. 3 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1881-1882, in French. Mahon (Mallorca).

Morlet, Laurent Joseph (1813-1892; France). Military, author, collector of fossil and recent continental and marine molluscs. 18 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1877-1882, in French. Montremil (Paris). Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Morelet, Pierre Marie Arthur (1809-1892; France), (Pl. 8, Fig. A). Naturalistic illustrator, author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 3 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1880, in French. Chateaux de Velars (Dijon). Breure & Audibert (2017), Breure et al., (2018), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Mousson, Johann Rudolf Albert (1850-1890; Switzerland), (Pl. 8, Fig. B). University lecturer (in physics), author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 3 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1876-1877, in French. Zurich. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Nevill, Geoffry (1843-1885; United Kingdom/India). Assistant superintendent of the Indian Museum in Calcutta (presently Kolkata), author, collector of fossil and recent continental molluscs. 5 letters, box 239 and 1 letter box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1878-1880, in French. Paris, London, Menton, Calcutta. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Nolan, Edward James (1846-1921; United States of America). Librarian of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1883, in Italian. Philadelphia (Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 2023).

Otting, Maximillian von (1815-1901; Germany). Bavarian Obersthofmarschall (administrative officer). 5 letters and 1 list, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1876-1881, in French. Munich. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Pantanelli, Dante (1844-1913; Italy), (Pl. 8, Fig. C). University lecturer (in geology) in Siena and Modena. 25 letters and 6 post-cards, box 239 in ASFI-APXA 1876-1883, in Italian. Siena, Modena. Manganelli et al. (2017), Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Paravia (Italy). Publishing house and bookshop in Turin founded in 1600, in 1800, it had a national development by opening branches in Florence (Via Tornabuoni), Rome, Milan and Naples. A receipt, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, undated. Avanzi (1935).

Parreyss, Ludwig (1799-1879; Germany), (Pl. 8, Fig. D). He was a very renowned collector and dealer in natural history objects, not only shells, author, collector of recent continental and marine molluscs. 1 letter, box 239 and 4 letters, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1875-1877, in German. Wien. Backhuys (2008), Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Paulucci, Giuseppe (1810?-1881?; Italy). Naval officer, cousin of Marianna Paulucci. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, in Italian, without date and locality, probably Florence.

Paulucci, Paolino (1850-1939; Italy), (Pl. 8, Fig. E). Military, cousin of Marianna Paulucci. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1877, in Italian. Without locality.

Pecchioli, Vittorio (1790-1870; Italy), (Pl. 8, Fig. F). Merchant, author, collector of fossil marine and recent continental molluscs, entomologist. 4 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1866-1869, in Italian. Settignano (Florence). Coan & Kabat (2021).

Pegorari, Luigi (1842-1885; Italy). Teacher (natural science) in secondary school in Aosta, author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 2 letters and 1 post-card, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1882, in Italian. Aosta. Manganelli et al. (2017).

Pfeiffer, Louis Carl Georg (1805-1877; Germany), (Pl. 8, Fig. G). Physician, author, collector of recent marine and continental molluscs, botanist. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1874, in French. Kassel. Neubert et al. (2020), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Pini, Napoleone (1835-1907; Italy), (Pl. 8, Fig. H). Lawyer, author, collector of recent continental molluscs, entomologist. 11 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1876-1883, in Italian. Milan. Manganelli et al. (2017), Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Pirona, Giulio Andrea (1822-1895; Italy), (Pl. 8, Fig. I). Physician, author, collector of fossil and recent marine and continental molluscs. 2 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1881-1882, in Italian. Udine. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Pisani, Giuseppe (1808-1885; Italy), (Pl. 9, Fig. A). Military, collector, and scholar of minerals especially from Elba Island and the Tuscan Archipelago, collector of fossil marine molluscs. 3 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1864-1875, in Italian. Viareggio, San Piero in Campo (Elba Island). Carpinacci (2016).

Pollonera, Carlo (1849-1923; Italy), (Pl. 9, Fig. B). Painter, collaborator of the Turin Museum, author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1882, in Italian. Turin. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Pons d’Hauterive, Léopold (1819-1901; France). Author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1 letter in MZUF, 1882, in French. Espalion (Aveyron). Coan & Kabat (2021).

Ponsonby-Fane, John Henry (1848-1916; United Kingdom), (Pl. 9, Fig. C). Banker, author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 20 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1880-1883, in French. London. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Ragusa, Enrico (1849-1924; Italy), (Pl. 9, Fig. D). Manager and owner of several hotels. Entomologist, author, and collector of recent continental molluscs. 1 letter box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1883, in Italian. Palermo. Notes: founded the periodical "Il Naturalista Siciliano"(1881). Alzona (1971).

Ramu, L. (?-?; Switzerland). 1 letter, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1879, in French. Genève.

Rawson, William (1812-1899; United Kingdom), (Pl. 9, Fig. E). Politician, colonial secretary at the Cape of Good Hope from 1854 to 1864, employed in Board of Trade in Canada, South Africa and other countries, collector of recent marine molluscs, botanist. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1880, in French. Florence. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Reuleaux, Carl or Karl (1826-1902; Germany). Engineer and poet, collector of recent continental molluscs. 1 letter in MZUF, 1889, in Italian. Munich, Bavaria. Aescht & Bisenberger (2019).

Rigacci Giovanni (1816-1871; Italy), (Pl. 9, Fig. F). Merchant, collector of fossil and recent continental and marine molluscs. 3 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1867-1870, in Italian. Rome. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Robillard, Victor de (1856-1884; France). Mauritian physician and naturalist, an active member of the Natural History Society of Mauritius. 29 letters, box 239 and 2 letters, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1872-1882, in French. Mauritius Island. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021), JSTOR (2022).

Rogers, Thomas (1827-1901; United Kingdom), (Pl. 9, Fig. G). Author, collector of recent continental molluscs, botanist. 2 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1883, in English. Manchester. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Saint Simon, Guillaume Camille Alfred de Candie (1823-1895; France), (Pl. 9, Fig. H). Nobleman, author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 21 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1877-1882, in French. Toulouse, Paris. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Sampson, Francis Asbury (1842-1918; United States of America), (Pl. 9, Fig. I). Lawyer, author, collector of fossil and recent continental molluscs. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1879, in English. Sedalia (U.S.A.). Note: the letter is sent to Cesare Caroti. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Savy, François Paul (?-?; France), (Fig. 16). Publisher and bookshop owner in Paris and with offices in London. 3 letters, box 239 and 90 letters and 17 invoices, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1864-1884, in French. Paris.

Fig. 16. F.P. Savy receipt, preserved in ASFI-APXA.

 

Schimper, Wilhelm Philippe (1808-1880; France), (Pl. 10, Fig. A). Museum director (in natural history) of Strasbourg, botanist. 3 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1875-1877, in French. Strasbourg. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Senoner, Adolf (1805-1895; Austria), (Pl. 10, Fig. B). Geologist and botanist, librarian of the Royal Geological Institute in Wien. 9 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1879-1880, in Italian. Wien. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Société de Borda (Dax, France). Company created in 1876, its name due to J.F. de Borda d’Oro (1718-1804), naturalist and J.C. de Borda (1733-1799), a sailor and mathematician. From its beginning, the Society published a Bulletin with contents devoted mostly to archaeology; letters signed by G. de Lautaulade and Teisfaindier. 4 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1878-81, in French. Dax.

Società Tecnica Ingegneria ed Industria Firenze (Florence, Italy). Company established in 1874 with the purpose of supplying machines, tools, teaching materials for schools, supplies and commerce. 2 receipts, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1881, in Italian. Florence.

Sordelli, Ferdinando (1837-1916; Italy), (Pl. 10, Fig. C). Vice-director and curator of the Natural History Museum in Milan, author, collector of continental molluscs, herpetologist, palaeontologist and botanist. 2 letters and 1 post-card, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1881-1882, in Italian. Milan. Manganelli et al. (2017), Breure & Audibert (2017).

Sowerby, George Brettingham, III (1843-1921; United Kingdom), (Pl. 10, Fig. D). Dealers of natural objects, mainly shells, author. 10 letters, box 239 and 34 letters, box in ASFI-APXA, 1866-1881, in French, Italian and English. London. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Stabile, Giuseppe (1826-1869; Italy), (Pl. 10, Fig. E). Abbot, author, collector of recent continental molluscs, entomologist. 2 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1866-1867, in Italian. Milan. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Stalio Luigi (1799-1882; Italy), (Pl. 10, Fig. F). Nautical professor at the merchant marine school in Venice, author, collector of recent marine molluscs, botanist. 1 business card, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1879, in Italian. Venice. Giordani Soika (1950), Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Statuti, Augusto (1829-1911; Italy), (Pl. 10, Fig. G). Engineer and architect, author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 13 letters and 1 post-card, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1870-1882, in Italian. Anticoli Corrado (Rome), Florence, Rocca di Papa, Rome. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Stoppani, Antonio (1824-1891; Italy), (Pl. 10, Fig. H). Abbot, politician, university lecturer (in geology), author, collector of fossil marine molluscs. 1 letter, box 23 in ASFI-APXA, 1881, in Italian. Florence. Cioppi & Dominici, (2001), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Stossich, Adolf (1842-1900; Italy), (Pl. 10, Fig. I). Teacher (in natural history), author, collector of recent continental and marine molluscs. 13 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1876-1883, in Italian. Trieste. Backhuys (2008), Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Strobel, Pellegrino (1821-1895; Italy), (Pl. 11, Fig. A). University lecturer (in geology) and politician, author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 3 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1880, in Italian. Traversetolo (Parma), Vignale di Traversetolo (Parma), Parma. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Studer, Theophil (1845-1922; Switzerland), (Pl. 11, Fig. B). University lecturer (in zoology and comparative anatomy) in Bern, curator of the zoological collections at the museum of natural history in Bern, author, collector of recent marine molluscs, ornithologist and marine biologist. 4 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1879-1881, in French. Bern. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Sulliotti, Giorgio Roberto (1859-1925; Italy), (Pl. 11, Fig. C). Lawyer, author, collector of recent continental and marine molluscs, palaeontologist. 3 letters and 1 post-card, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1882-1883, in Italian. Porto Maurizio (Imperia). Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Suter-Naef Hans Heinrich (1841-1918; Switzerland/New Zealand), (Pl. 11, Fig. D). Chemist, author, collector of recent continental and marine molluscs. 8 letters and 1 post-card, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1881-1883, in French. Zurich. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Tapparone Canefri, Cesare Maria (1838-1891; Italy), (Fig. 17, Pl. 11, Fig. E). Museum curator (zoology) of Turin and Genoa, teacher (natural history), author, collector of recent continental and marine molluscs. 41 letters, box 239 and 1 letter, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1867-1883, in Italian. Turin, Genoa, Wurzburg, Quattordio (Alessandria). Manganelli et al. (2017), Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Fig. 17. Drawing by C. Tapparone Canefri inserted in a letter dated 14 March 1874 sent to M. Paulucci, preserved in ASFI-APXA.

 

Targioni Tozzetti, Adolfo (1823-1902; Italy), (Pl. 11, Fig. F). University lecturer (zoology) in Florence, author, collector of continental molluscs, entomologist. 12 letters, box 239 and 1 letter, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1876-1883, in Italian. Florence, Berlin. Manganelli et al. (2017), Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Thielens, Armand (1833-1878; Belgium), (Pl. 11, Fig. G). Belgian vinegar manufacturer in Tirlemont, author and collector of recent continental molluscs, botanist. 15 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1867-1876, in French. Tirlemont (Bruxelles). Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Tiberi, Nicola (1810-1885; Italy). Physician, author, collector of recent marine and continental molluscs. 5 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1877-1879, in Italian. Portici (Naples). Manganelli et al. (2017), Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Tipografia dell’Ancora, Siena. Printer press in Siena, located at the time in Via delle Terme 23, printer of the Bullettino della Società Malacologica. 1 letter, box 51 in ASFI-APXA 1882, in Italian. Siena.

Tommasi, Anselmo (1875-1890; Italy), (Pl. 11, Fig. H). Landowner, politician, author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 14 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1876-1880, in Italian. Castelgoffredo (Mantua). Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Tournouër, Jacques Raoul (1822-1882; France), (Pl. 11, Fig. I). Lawyer, palaeontologist, collector of fossil marine molluscs. 3 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1880, in French. Paris. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Tryon Jr., George Washington (1838-1888; United States of America), (Pl. 12, Fig. A). Museum curator (in malacology), author, collector of recent marine and continental molluscs. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1882, in English. Philadelphia. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Uzielli, Vittorio (1841-?; Italy). Banker, author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 3 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1866-1877, in Italian. Leghorn. Manganelli et al. (2017), Breure & Audibert (2017).

Valentini, Eugenio (1829-1894; Italy). Engineer and professor of mathematics, author, collector of recent continental molluscs. 7 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1873-1878, in Italian. Ascoli Piceno. Manganelli et al. (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Vérany, Jean-Baptiste (1800-1865; France), (Pl. 12, Fig. B). Pharmacist, naturalist, specialised in the study of cephalopods and nudibranchs, author, collector of fossil marine molluscs. 6 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1863-1866, in French. Nice. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Verdey, Adèle (?-?; France). 2 letters, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, without date, in French. Paris. Note: She offered a box with stuffed birds, some from Verreaux.

Verkrüzen, Theodor Anton (1807-1896; Germany/United Kingdom), (Pl. 12, Fig. C). Dealer, professional shell collector, author, collector of recent marine molluscs. 15 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1876-1877, in French. Frankfurt. Coan & Kabat (2021).

Vieusseux, Julie (1820-1878; Netherland/Australia), (Pl. 12, Fig. D). Australian painter and educator. She was the founder and manager of the Viesseux Ladies’ College in Melbourne, between 1857 and 1878. 1 letter, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1875, in French. Clarendon (East Melbourne, Australia).

Vieusseux (Fig. 18). Scientific-literary institute based in Florence founded in 1820 by Giovan Pietro Vieusseux. 6 receipts, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1874-1881, in Italian. Florence.

Fig. 18. Gabinetto Vieusseux receipt, preserved in ASFI-APXA.

 

Vilas von, Hermann Johann (1863-1939; Austria). Lawyer, collector of recent continental molluscs. 3 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1881, in Italian. Innsbruck. Note: in the letters, he italianises his name in Arminio de Vilas.

Villa, Antonio (1806-1885; Italy), (Pl. 12, Fig. E). Engineer, author, collector of recent continental molluscs, entomologist and geologist. 6 letters and 3 post-cards, box 239, and 7 letters, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1862-82, in Italian. Milan. Manganelli et al. (2017), Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Vimont, Michel (Vve.) Anna-Zoé (?-1883; France). Shell dealer, collector of recent marine and continental molluscs. 1 letter, box 239 and 9 letters, box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1874-1880, in French. Paris. Coan & Kabat (2021). A letter may have been written by her husband Michel Vimont.

Westerlund, Carl Agardh (1831-1908; Sweden), (Pl. 12, Fig. F). University lecturer (in zoology) in Ronneby, author, collector of recent continental molluscs, ornithologist and botanist. 24 letters and 1 post-card, box 239, 2 in box 51 in ASFI-APXA, 1875-1883, in French. Ronneby, Malborghetto, Carinthia. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Wetherby, Albert Gallatin (1833-1902; United States of America), (Pl. 12, Fig. G). University lecturer (in natural history) in Cincinnati, author, collector of recent continental molluscs, mineralogist. 5 letters, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1879-1881 in English. Cincinnati. Breure & Audibert (2017), Coan & Kabat (2021).

Ximenes Eduardo (1852-1932; Italy), (Fig. 19). One of the Ximenes brothers, author of the plates of Paulucci's work on the Malacological Fauna of Calabria (1880). He collected shells for Paulucci in Palermo. 1 post-card, box 239 in ASFI-APXA, 1882, in Italian. Palermo.

Fig. 19. Drawing by E. Ximenes inserted in a postcard dated 28 March 1889 sent to M. Paulucci, preserved in ASFI-APXA.

 

Other not ascribable letters
In boxes 239 and 51 in ASFI-APXA, in addition to the above-mentioned letters to her correspondents, 10 letters could not be attributed to any of her correspondents or 19th century authors, as they lacked a signature or the signature was illegible. Six are written in French, three in English and one in Italian.

 

Pl. 1. A. Adami, Giovanni Battista (SNM); B. Allery, di Monterosato, Tommaso di Maria (SIM); C. Andreae, Achilles (WP); D. Appelius, Federigo (SNM); E. Aradas, Andrea (WP); F. Baudon, Auguste Adolphe (WP); G. Benoit, Luigi (SNM); H. Blanchet, Jaques Samuel (courtesy of B. Breure); I. Boccaccini, Corrado (from Cossavella, 1902).

 

Pl. 2. A. Bock, Carl (WP); B. Boettger, Oskar (WP); C. Bouè, Ami (WP); D. Brogi, Sigismondo (courtesy of F. Barbagli); E. Brot, Auguste Louis (courtesy of the Bibliotèque de Genève); F. Brugnone, Giuseppe [Antonio] (WP); G. Bryce McMurdo Wright Jr. (courtesy of W.E. Wilson); H. Button, Fred (from Merritt, 1928); I. Cafici, Corrado (courtesy of R. Adorno).

 

Pl. 3. A. Carruccio, Antonio (RP); B. Cavanna, Guelfo (RP); C. Cerio, Ignazio (from Cerio, 1921); D. Clessin, Stefan (from Borchending, 1912); E. Cleve, Per Theodor (WK); F. Cocchi, Igino (WP); G. Coppi, Francesco (WP); H. Costa, Achille (WP); I. Crosse, Hippolyte (courtesy of B. Breure).

 

Pl. 4. A. D’Ancona, Cesare (SMA); B. De Betta, Francesco Edoardo (RP); C. Desor, Pierre Jean Édouard (WP); D. De Stefani, Carlo (SMA); E. Del Prete, Raimondo (courtesy of Misericordia Viareggio); F. Deshayes, Gerard Paul (courtesy of B. Breure); G. Dohrn, Wolfgang Ludwig Heinrich (WP); H. Doderlein, Pietro (courtesy of the Museum of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia); I. Dupuy, Dominique (WP).

 

Pl. 5. A. Étienne, Jean Auguste Celestin [Frère Ogérien] (WP); B. Fagot, Paul (WP); C. Fischer, Paul Henri (WP); D. Fitzgerald, Julie [Mrs.] (SNM); E. Folin, Alexandre Guillaume Leopold, (WP); F. Gentile, Giacomo (courtesy of C. Gentile); G. Gentiluomo, Camillo (from Manganelli et al., 2017); H. Goldfuss, Otto Gottfried (from Wüst, 1906); I. Gredler, Vincenz Maria (RP).

 

Pl. 6. A. Hidalgo, Joaquin Gonzalez y Rodriguez (WP); B. Issel, Arturo (RP); C. Jeffreys, Gwyn (WP); D. Jousseaume, Félix-Pierre (Shellers of the past); E. Kobelt, Wilhem (WP); F. Lawley, Roberto (WP); G. Lessona, Mario (WP); H. Locard, Étienne Alexandre Arnould (WP); I. Major Forsyth, Immanuel Carlo (WP).

 

Pl. 7. A. Maler, Teoberto (WP); B. Maltzan, Hermann Friedrich Joachim von (WP); C. Marinoni, Camillo (courtesy of F. Barbagli); D. Martorell y Pena, Frances (WP); E. Mascarini, Alessandro (IA); F. Meli, Romolo (IA); G. Meneghini, Giuseppe (SMA); H. Michelotti, Giovanni (from Sacco, 1895); I. Monjo, Monji [Pere] (courtesy of M. Anglada, Museu de Menorca).

 

Pl. 8. A. Morelet, Pierre Marie Arthur (Shellers of the past); B. Mousson, Johann Rudolf Albert (WP); C. Pantanelli, Dante (from Manganelli et al., 2017); D. Parreyss, Ludwig (SNM); E. Paulucci, Giuseppe (courtesy of F. Barbagli); F. Pecchioli, Vittorio (RP); G. Pfeiffer, Louis Carl Georg (WP); H. Pini, Napoleone (SMA); I. Pirona, Giulio Andrea (WP).

 

Pl. 9. A. Pisani, Giuseppe (courtesy of A. Alati); B. Pollonera, Carlo (WP); C. Ponsonby-Fane, John Henry (from Sykes, 1917); D. Ragusa, Enrico (RP); E. Rawson, William (courtesy of Cory Library at Rhodes University); F. Rigacci Giovanni (from Gentiluomo, 1874); G. Rogers, Thomas (from Taylor, 1907); H. Saint Simon, Guillaume Camille Alfred de Candie (from Fagot, 1885); I. Sampson, Francis Asbury (from Greger, 1918).

 

Pl. 10. A. Schimper, Wilhelm Philippe (WP); B. Senoner, Adolf (IA); C. Sordelli, Ferdinando (RP); D. Sowerby, George Brettingham, III (courtesy of B. Breure); E. Stabile, Giuseppe (RP); F. Stalio Luigi (IA); G. Statuti, Augusto (IA); H. Stoppani, Antonio (SMA); I. Stossich, Adolf (IA).

 

Pl. 11. A. Strobel, Pellegrino (WP); B. Studer, Theophil (WP); C. Sulliotti, Giorgio Roberto (RP); D. Suter-Naef Hans Heinrich (WP); E. Tapparone Canefri, Cesare Maria (RP); F. Targioni Tozzetti, Adolfo (IA); G. Thielens, Armand (SMA); H. Tommasi, Anselmo (courtesy of A. Franchini); I. Tournouër, Jacques Raoul (WP).

 

Pl. 12. A. Tryon Jr., George Washington (WP); B. Verany, Jean Baptiste (from Isnard, 1910); C. Verkrüzen, Theodor Anton (SNM); D. Vieusseux, Julie (WP); E. Villa, Antonio (SMA); F. Westerlund, Carl Agardh (WP); G. Wetherby, Albert (from Harper, 1902).
 

Conclusions

The correspondence archive of Marianna Paulucci confirms the major role she played in the development of Italian and European malacology in the second half of the nineteenth century. Furthermore, it testifies to her ability to build an important network of relationships with the leading malacologists of the time, Italian and European, with whom she exchanged opinions and specimens. This network was important for the number and quality of her correspondents, and for the range of topics and contents dealt with. Due to the frequent personal contacts and recurring travels some of her correspondents developed into real friendships as happened with Monterosato, Del Prete, Crosse, Morlet, Gassies, Tapparone Canefri, Fischer, Westerlund and others.

An in-depth study of the content of the correspondence together with the letters written by Paulucci kept at the Museum of Florence and other Italian and European archives will shed light on some unsolved aspects of Paulucci's work and to a better understanding of the reason for some of her theoretical choices that are not yet well understood (Barsanti, 2002). Another important contribution of this archive will be the knowledge of the relationships between the malacology protagonists that characterized this productive period of the nineteenth century.

Moreover, the analysis of the single letters will give a possible cue to the solution of the many nomenclatural problems, as already happened in some cases for the taxa established by Paulucci (Cianfanelli et al., 2021), or the reconstruction of the correct dates of publication (Cianfanelli et al. in press), according to the rules of Art. 21 of the ICZN Code (1999) for papers introducing new taxa.

The data contained in this correspondence are an important piece for reconstructing the history of malacology starting from the main scholars of that period, many of whom are correspondents of Paulucci. Following what has been done with the research at the Florence State Archive, it will be necessary to bring to light the enormous cultural heritage contained in the State Archives of other Italian cities, in the University Archives, in the Natural History Museums and in the Italian Libraries, heritage still not adequately known and valued. Much has been published on the subject, but always on individual authors, lacking a general project to support this important subject.

A necessity that Lorenzo Camerano (1856-1917) already felt urgent in 1910, more generally for all Italian zoologists: “L’Unione Zoologica Italiana dovrebbe, per quanto è possibile, che i documenti che si riferiscono agli zoologi passati, come manoscritti, lettere, sunti delle lezioni, ecc., ora posseduti da privati e perciò di studio sempre difficile, talvolta impossibile, vengano raccolti nelle biblioteche e negli archivii pubblici o nei Musei Zoologici per renderli accessibili agli studiosi e per salvarli da eventuale disperdimento o distruzione” (Camerano, 1910). ["The Italian Zoological Union should, as far as possible, that documents referring to past zoologists, such as manuscripts, letters, summaries of lessons, etc., now privately owned and therefore always difficult, sometimes impossible to study, should be collected in public libraries and archives or in Zoological Museums to make them accessible to scholars and to save them from possible dispersion or destruction”]. From this point of view, the repertoire presented here could be a first step for the construction of a complete archive of the Italian authors of malacology of the19th century, based on what was proposed by Audibert & Breure (2011), which should then be linked to the wider European one.

The correspondence that has been presented here, essentially in its overall structure, should be studied in detail to carry out further studies related to the Paulucci collection, which is rich in type specimens. Even if many of her contemporaries studied her collection, it is still today a point of reference for specialists for reviews of the regional malacofauna, and we are sure it will still be able to provide useful unpublished data.

 

Acknowledgements

We thank for the help received in the bibliographic and iconographic search, and for the information on the individual correspondents, the following colleagues: Milena Bertacchini, Andrea Gambarelli and Emiro Endrighi (Gemma Museum-Museum System and Botanical Garden MUSEOMORE, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia); Bram Breure, Research Associate at Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Netherlands; Celia Bueno Natural History Museum of Neuchâtel; Giordano Turchi and Daniela Fattori of the State Archive of Florence; Sabina Cavicchi of the Scientific Pole of the University of Florence; Fausto Barbagli, Lorenzo Cecchi and Stefano Dominici (Natural History Museum (S.M.A), Italy); Ted von Proschwitz of the Gothenburg Natural History Museum of Sweden; Sigrid Hof and Julia Sigwart (Senckenberg Sektion Malakologie of Germany); Anita Eschner (Naturhistorisches Museum Wien); Harriet Wood and Graham Oliver (National Museum of Wales); Federica Battilani of the Viareggio Misericordia; Montserrat Anglada (Museu de Menorca); Wendell Wilson (The Mineralogical Record Library); Andrea Alati; Roberto Andreone; Massimo Cretella; Giuseppe Fasulo; Giacomo Gentile; Matteo Giunti; Federico Pezzotta; Nicola Podestà; Roberto Poggi; Riccardo Giannuzzi Savelli; Maurizio Sosso.

 

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Annexe : table 1


  Correspondent Gender Nationality 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 Letters and receipts BOX 239 Postcards BOX 239 Letters BOX 51 Letters MZUF Tot
1 Adami Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 5 4 - 2 3 2 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 20 - - 1 21
2 Alt & Neuman Germany - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 3 1 - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - 7 - 7
3 Andreae Germany - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
4 Appelius Italy - - - - - 1 - - - - - - 4 3 - 1 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 1 - - 11
5 Aradas Italy - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - 1 - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - 3
6 Baudon France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 2 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 - - - 5
7 Benoit Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 3 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 - - - 6
8 Blanc Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11 2 - - 3 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 17 - - - 17
9 Blanchette Italy - - - 3 5 3 3 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 15 - 2 - 17
10 Bocca Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - 2 - 4
11 Boccacini Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
12 Bock Norwegian/U.K. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - 2
13 Boetger Germany - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 2 1 3 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 13 - - - 13
14 Bolgiano Germany - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 - - - 4
15 Bonanni Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
16 Bouè Austria - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
17 Briendel Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
18 Brogi Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - 2
19 Brot Switzerland - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - 2
20 Brugnone Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - 2
21 Bryce & Wright U.K. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
22 Button U.S.A. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 4 2 2 - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 - - - 10
23 Cafici Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 3 5 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 16 - - - 16
24 Caifassi Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - 1 - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 - - - 5
25 Caroti Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7 3 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 16 - - - 16
26 Carruccio Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
27 Castelli Italy - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
28 Cavanna Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - 2
29 Cerio Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 - - - 5
30 Chevalisy Belgium - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
31 Clessin Germany - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 11 5 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 19 - - - 19
32 Cleve Sweden - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 1 - 1 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 - - - 6
33 Club Alpino Italiano Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - 2
34 Cocchi Italy - - 3 1 - 1 - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 - - - 6
35 Collier U.K. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
36 Coppi Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
37 Costa Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 - - - 4
38 Crosse France - 1 1 5 1 2 2 3 3 - - 2 - 5 - 6 1 4 5 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 44 - 2 - 46
39 Damon U.K. - - - - 6 2 7 9 2 1 2 2 4 - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - 36 - 36
40 D'Ancona Italy - - - 1 2 3 - - 1 - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9 - - - 9
41 De Betta Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 2 3 3 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 - - - 10
42 De Burgh U.K. 1 1 - - - - - 1 1 - - - - 1 - 17 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 22 - - - 22
43 Degréaux Italy - - 1 - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - 4 - 4
44 Desor Switzerland - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - 3
45 De Stefani Italy - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - 2
46 De Stefanis Italy - - - - - - - 7 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9 - - - 9
47 Del Prete Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 9 3 14 8 11 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 49 5 - 2 56
48 Deschamps France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - 3
49 Deshayes Switzerland - - - - 1 2 1 - 3 3 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11 - 1 - 12
50 Dhorn Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
51 Doderlein Poland - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
52 Drouet France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 13 - 4 2 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 19 - - 2 21
53 Dupuy France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 - - - 4
54 Etienne France - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
55 Fagot France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 4 4 3 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 16 - - - 16
56 Féret & Fils France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 - 2
57 Fischer France - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 1 3 4 4 3 2 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 19 - - 1 20
58 Fitz-Gerald U.K. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 2 1 6 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 16 - - - 16
59 Folin France - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 2 - 1 2 2 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 10 - - - 10
60 Friedländer & Sohn Germany - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 9 - - 1 9 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - 27 - 27
61 Gal [Frères] France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - 3 - 3
62 Gassies France - - - - - 2 1 - 3 1 - - 4 1 - 3 4 1 1 1 2 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 24 1 - - 25
63 Gentile Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 - 1 - 7
64 Gentiluomo Italy - - - - - - - 1 - 5 3 - 1 1 2 2 5 1 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 23 - 1 - 24
65 Gloyne U.K. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - 3
66 Goldfus Germany - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - 3
67 Goupy & Jordan France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 - 2
68 Granata Grillo Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
69 Gray U.S.A. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
70 Gréaux de Laurent France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - 3 - 6
71 Gredler Austria - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - 2
72 Hanley U.K. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
73 Hidalgo Spain - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - 2
74 Hinrichs Germany - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 - 4 - 8
75 Issel Italy - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - 2 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 - - - 6
76 Jago Italy - - - - 1 1 - 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 - - - 6
77 Jeffreys U. K. - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 - - 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 1 - - 6
78 Jousseaume France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - 3
79 Juba de L'Hôtellerie France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 - 2
80 Kobelt Germany - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 5 1 1 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9 - - - 9
81 Landauer Germany - 1 - - - 1 - 2 4 3 - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 14 - 15
82 Lawley Italy - - - - 1 1 2 - - - - - - 1 - - 1 - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 - 2 - 7
83 Lessona Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - 3
84 Linnea Germany - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 - 2
85 Locard France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 1 - - 7
86 Loescher Italy - - - - - - 1 - - 1 - - - - 1 - - - - 2 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - 8 - 8
87 Major U. K. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - 1 1 - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - 1 - - 3 4
88 Maler Germany/Mexico - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
89 Maltzan Germany - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
90 Manzella Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 - 2
91 Marinoni Camillo Italy - - - - - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - 3
92 Marinoni Luigi Italy - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - 2
93 Martorell Spain - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - 2
94 Mascarini Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 - 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7 - - - 7
95 Meli Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 - - - 4
96 Meneghini Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - 2
97 Michelotti Italy - - - - - 7 4 - - - 1 - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14 - - - 14
98 Molteni Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 - - - 4
99 Monjo Spain - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - 3
100 Monterosato Italy - - - - - - - - - 1 - - 3 3 - 9 11 2 - 3 6 3 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 42 - - - 42
101 Morlet France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 8 1 3 2 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 18 - - - 18
102 Morelet France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - 3
103 Mousson Switzerland - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - 3
104 Nevill U.K./India - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 4 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 - 1 - 6
105 Nolan U.S.A - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
106 Otting Germany - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - 1 1 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 1 - - 5
107 Pantanelli Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - 5 3 10 10 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 25 6 - - 31
108 Paravia Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 - 2
109 Parreys Germany - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 - 4 - 9
110 Paulucci Giuseppe Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - - - 0
111 Paulucci Paolino Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
112 Pecchioli Italy - - - - - 1 - 1 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 - - - 4
113 Pegorari Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 1 - - 4
114 Pfeiffer Germany - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
115 Pini Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 3 1 - - 2 2 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11 - - - 11
116 Pirona Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - 2
117 Pisani Italy - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - 3
118 Pollonera Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
119 Pons France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - 1 2
120 Ponsonby-Fane U.K. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 9 6 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 20 - - - 20
121 Ragusa Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
122 Ramu Switzerland - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 - 2
123 Rawson U.K. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
124 Releaux Germany - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - 1 - - 1 2
125 Rigacci Italy - - - - - - 2 - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - 3
126 Robillard France - - - - - - - - - - - 1 3 5 3 7 7 2 - 1 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 29 - 2 - 31
127 Rogers U.K. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - 2
128 Saint Simon France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 11 4 - 2 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 21 - - - 21
129 Sampson U.S.A - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
130 Savy France - - - 1 8 7 9 4 4 10 6 2 8 3 5 11 10 1 1 1 - 1 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - 93 - 3 - 96
131 Schimper France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
132 Senoner Austria - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 5 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9 - - - 9
133 Società Borda France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 - - - 4
134 Soc. Tecnica Ing. Industria Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - 2 - 2
135 Sordelli Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 1 - - 3
136 Sowerby U.K. - - - - - 3 2 1 3 5 2 - 3 2 2 7 5 4 - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7 - 34 - 41
137 Stabile Italy - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - - - 2
138 Stalio Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - 2
139 Statuti Italy - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - 5 5 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12 1 - - 13
140 Stoppani Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
141 Stossich Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 3 - 2 - 3 2 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 13 - - - 13
142 Strobel Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - 3
143 Studer Switzerland - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 - - - 4
144 Suliotti Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 1 - - 5
145 Suter Switzerland - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 7 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 9 1 - - 10
146 Tapparone Canefri Italy - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - 4 5 9 2 4 3 2 10 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 41 - 1 - 42
147 Targioni Tozzetti Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - 1 - 1 1 4 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12 - 1 - 13
148 Thielens Belgium - - - - - - 1 1 2 - - - - 6 1 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14 - - - 14
149 Tiberi Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 - - - 4
150 Tipografia dell'Ancora Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 1 - 2
151 Tommasi Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 5 2 4 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14 - - - 14
152 Tournouër France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - 3
153 Tryon U.S.A. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
154 Uzielli Italy - - - - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - 3
155 Valentini Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 1 - - 3 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7 - - - 7
156 Verany France - - 3 1 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 - - - 6
157 Verdey France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - 2 - 2
158 Verkrüzen Germany/U.K. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 15 - - - 15
159 Vieusseux Julie Netherland/Australia - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - 1
160 Vieusseux Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - 1 - 2 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 0 - 6 - 6
161 Vilas Austria - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 - - - 3
162 Villa Italy - 2 3 - - 3 2 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6 3 7 - 16
163 Vimont widow France - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 1 - 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - 8 - 9
164 Westerlund Sweden - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 4 3 7 3 2 2 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 23 1 2 - 26
165 Wetherby U.S.A. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5 - - - 5
166 Ximenes Italy - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 1 - - 2
        1 4 11 15 26 54 42 36 37 37 15 7 33 37 44 135 165 115 125 121 137 128 29 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1159 28 198 11 1396

Tab. 1. Synoptic table of Paulucci's correspondents with the chronology of the dates of sending the letters. In some cases, there is no correspondence between the sum of the number of letters entered in the columns of the chronology and the column of the total number of letters; this is because the total number also includes letters that do not have a date.

 

Authors


Enrico Talenti
External collaborator at Natural History Museum University of Florence, Zoological Section "La Specola", Via Romana,17, 50125 Firenze Italy.

Gianna Innocenti
Natural History Museum University of Florence, Zoological Section "La Specola", Via Romana,17, 50125 Firenze Italy.
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Laura Lusvardi
External collaborator at Natural History Museum University of Florence, Zoological Section "La Specola", Via Romana,17, 50125 Firenze Italy.

Simone Cianfanelli
Past curator of Natural History Museum University of Florence, Zoological Section "La Specola", Via Romana,17, 50125 Firenze Italy.
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Citation


Talenti E., Innocenti G., Lusvardi L. & Cianfanelli S., 2024. Inventory of the Malacological Epistolary of the Correspondents of Marianna Panciatichi Ximenes d'Aragona Paulucci. Colligo, 7(1). https://revue-colligo.fr/?id=95.